The Prediction of Lymphohematopoietic Diseases by Incidentally-Detected Diffuse Signal Alterations of Bone Marrow on MRI
Objective: Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients. The clinical significance of incidentally-detected signal alterations of the bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone marrow signal changing on magnetic resonance imaging could predict a hematologic disease.
Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who were referred to Hematology department due to bone marrow signal alteration on magnetic resonance imaging between the years of 2011 and 2018 were evaluated.
Results: There were 8 males and 22 females with a median age of 53 (range, 31–86) years at the time of presentation to the Hematology clinic. The magnetic resonance imaging studies had been taken because the patients had complaints of pain in extremities or lumbago (80%). The patients had been followed for median 4.5 months (0-71.7). Six (20%) cases had a bone marrow biopsy at presentation and a diagnosis was established in 5 (16.6%) of them (1 patient was diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia, 4 patients were diagnosed multiple myeloma). Marrow biopsy was done in 11 of the cases during follow-up median 3.8 months (1.3-11.5) after presentation. A diagnosis was made in 9 cases (5 patients were diagnosed multiple myeloma, 2 patients were diagnosed follicular lymphoma, 1 patient was diagnosed waldenstrom macroglobulinemia). Thirteen cases never had a biopsy. These cases had been followed for 1.3 months (0-71.7). None of them showed clinical abnormalities related to a lymphohematopoietic disorder and/or diagnosed with such a disorder. Only 1 patient was diagnosed with osteomalacia at follow-up.
Conclusion: Incidentally-detected signal alterations of the bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging should trigger investigations for a marrow problem. Most of the diagnosis patients were multiple myeloma. Extremity pain and findings like anemia may be associated with lymphohematological malignancies.
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